Landfill leachate is a complex effluent with high concentrations of organics and heavy metals that poses significant environmental risk if left untreated. Our clients require consistent permeate quality to meet stringent environmental regulations.
While this class of wastewater typically requires several treatment steps, high performance membranes are at the heart of meeting stringent discharge regulations including zero liquid discharge (ZLD) applications. In fact, RO membranes are the only treatment technology that can consistently provide high quality treated effluent, even if the feed varies.
In the table, we show the performance of a ST+ RO membrane landfill leachate treatment system. Per the process diagram, the leachate was acidified and then mechanically prefiltered before being fed to a two-stage ST+ system. Excellent permeate quality results from this RO membrane process.
The AquaZoom™ reverse osmosis membrane module technology has been used in more than 81 landfill leachate treatment installations over the last 10 years.
With your flow, feed quality, and discharge requirements, we can recommend the membrane and module configuration to meet your needs. Talk to us about your situation and we can help optimize overall throughput and membrane performance.
With recent technological advancements, coal can now be economically converted into liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel, or other petrochemicals. The coal-to-chemical process consumes high volumes of water for cooling systems and a complex wastewater is produced in the liquefaction process.
CTX waste effluents typically contain salts, minerals, sulfides, chlorides, ammonia, oil & grease, and cyanides. Each of these needs to be substantially reduced to allow for recycle, reuse, or discharge of the treated effluent.
Wastewater produced in the CTX process is characterized by large flow volumes with high organic loading, suspended solids, and dissolved inorganic impurities. This wastewater requires multiple treatment steps. ST+ and ST++ modules are excellent choices to drive concentration up and the cost of evaporation down.
Based on a typical CTX wastewater stream, we’ve estimated the permeate quality following a single stage of ST+ modules.
AquaZoom RO technology is installed in one site operating on CTX wastewater. This installation uses up to 200 of our ST++ modules. We are in the process of getting operating data for inclusion on our website.
Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) is a process by which coal-fired power plants remove sulphur dioxide (SO2) before emitting their flue gas into the atmosphere. The water intensive scrubbing process requires a durable treatment technology as FGD blowdown wastewaters are highly contaminanted.
FGD scrubber liquor has very high levels of chlorides (4,000 – 25,000 mg/L), trace concentrations of heavy metals (e.g., chromium, mercury, and selenium), high levels of nitrates (10-700 mg/L) and very high levels of total dissolved solids (15,000 to 60,000 mg/L).
Effluent is particularly contaminated with suspended solids, chlorides, and organics
Treatment of complex, high TDS wastewater will result in more processes and require more durable materials of construction.
Conventional processes, like coagulation/flocculation, softening and ultrafiltration are used as pre-treatment to the RO in order to achieve Zero Liquid Discharge.
Our AquaZoom™ ST+ or DTG modules can be used to desalinate the wastewater and cost effectively reduce the volume prior to evaporation. A typical FGD water treatment process is illustrated to the right.
As a large membrane area solution for high-volume applications, the ST+ and ST++ modules can be used to significantly reduce treatment plant footprint and overall CAPEX.
AquaZoom™ DT and ST module technology has been used for seawater desalination on offshore vessels and platforms for over 30 years, including 60 installations over the past 10 years.
Simple operation, long membrane lifetime, and limited feed pretreatment requirements due to their unique feed side module construction makes them the desalination technology of choice for many offshore marine operators.